Volkswagen cars, which cheated emissions tests to show compliance with environmental standards, may kill as many as 1,200 people in Europe prematurely, and would shorten each person’s life by a decade, a new study has claimed. In September 2015, the German automaker Volkswagen admitted to having installed “defeat devices” in 11 million diesel cars sold worldwide between 2008 and 2015. The devices were designed to comply with environmental standards when, in fact, they emitted pollutants called nitric oxides (NOx) at levels that were on average four times the applicable European test-stand limit. Researchers, including those from Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the US, had previously estimated that the excess emissions generated by 482,000 affected vehicles would cause about 60 premature deaths across the US. Now, they have looked closer to Volkswagen’s home base, examining the health impact from the 2.6 million affected cars sold in Germany under Volkswagen Group’s brands VW, Audi, Skoda and Seat.