Queen Mary I
Born in 1516 to England's King Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon, Mary lived a quiet life as a royal princess. In 1527, the king began to seek annulment of his marriage to her mother but the pope refused to grant an annulment. In 1533 Henry's bishops dissolved the marriage and allowed Henry to marry Anne Boleyn. After Catherine's death, Henry in turn executed Anne Boleyn on trumped-up charges of adultery conspiracy. Edward VI followed his father as king in 1547, but died already in 1553. Mary became queen and she was the first queen in England to rule in her own right – not as wife of someone else, or regent for a too-young king.
Doctor Who Stopped Choking
Henry Judah Heimlich was an American thoracic surgeon and medical researcher. He is widely credited as the inventor of the Heimlich maneuver, a technique of abdominal thrusts for stopping choking, described in Emergency Medicine in 1974. Before his invention, how did people dislodge something stuck in the throat? Often, they would grab the choking person’s wrists and jerk their arms upwards. They would scream and cough and the object would be dislodged – either up or down – immediately. It worked especially well with children.
The Lost Library of Ivan the Terrible
In 1472, Ivan III, an avid book collector, married Sophia Paleologue, niece of the last Byzantine emperor. When she moved to Moscow, she brought her own book collection, which was rumored to contain most of the Library of Constantinople as well as manuscripts from the Library of Alexandria. Ivan IV, grandson of Ivan III, is also known in history as the Terrible. He added to the library throughout his life and stored his collection in the Kremlin’s basement. Scribes were commissioned to translate all the works into Russian. After Ivan the Terrible’s death, the collection vanished from history. Some claim that it was destroyed in a fire. Some claim it was hidden away , still waiting to be rediscovered.